Social Science : Geography : Chapter 5 : India – Population, Transport, Communication Trade
I. Choose the Correct Answer:
1. The scientific study of different aspects of population is called
Ans : Demography
2. transport provides door to door services.
Ans : Roadways
3. The length of Golden Quadrilateral superhighways in India is
- 5846 km
- 5942 km
- 5630 km
- 5800 km
Ans : 5846 km
4. The National Remote sensing Centre(NRSC) is located at .
Ans : Hyderabad
5. The transport useful in the inaccessible areas is
Ans : Airways
6. Which of the following is associated with helicopter service?
- Air India
- Indian Airlines
- Pavan Hans
Ans : Pavan Hans
7. The major import item of India is
Ans : Petroleum
II. Match the following:
|1. Border Road Organisation||Satellite communication|
|2. INSAT||Impact of Urbanization|
|3. Mazagaon Dock||1990|
|4. Urban sprawl||Mumbai|
|5. Konkan Railways||1960|
Ans: 1- E, 2 -A, 3 – D, 4 – B, 5 – C
III. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. What is migration? State its types.
- It is the movement of people across regions and territories. It can be-
i) Internal migration (within a country) or
ii) International (between the countries) migration.
- Internal migration does not change the size of population of a country but it influences the distribution of population in a nation.
- International migration does not have much impact on the population of a country.
2. Write any four advantages of railways.
- It helps us in moving bulk goods such as iron ore, coal mineral oil, etc., from one centre to another.
- Railways serve as chief mode of transport for both passengers and goods
- It forms a major employment sector giving jobs to lakhs of people.
- It helps in agricultural development by connecting urban to rural areas.
- It helps in connecting famines by quick movement of essential commodities.
3. Write a note on Pipeline network transport in India
- Pipelines provided a very convenient mode of transport to connect oil and natural gas fields, refineries and to the markets.
- The three important network large network of pipeline in the country are
i) Oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur,
ii) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab and
iii) Gas pipeline from the Hazira in Gujarat to Jagadispur in Uttar Pradesh.
4. State the major Inland waterways of India
The major waterways are
National waterway 1 :
- It extends between Haldia and Allahabad, measures 1620 km and includes the stretches of the Ganga- Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system.
National Waterway 2 :
This waterway includes the stretch of the Brahmaputra river between Dhubri and Sadiya a distance of 891 km.
National Waterway 3 :
This waterway extends between Kollam and Kottapuram in the state of Kerala. It is the first national waterway in the country with 24 hour
5. What is communication? What are its types?
- z Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts and ideas. Technology does wonders in communication fields.
- Communication is categorized in to personal and mass communications.
- The exchange of information between the individuals is called personal Communication. Example – Postal letters, telephones, mobile phones, etc.
- Communication that helps millions of people to get the information at the same time is known as mass communication. Example – News papers, televisions, radios, etc.
6. Define “International trade”.
- Trade carried on between two or more countries is called International trade.
- It is also called as external trade or foreign trade.
- Waterways and Airways play a vital role in this type of trade.
- Foreign currency is involved in international trade.
7. State the merits of Roadways.
- Roads play an important role in carrying goods and passengers for short, medium and long distances.
- It is highly suitable for short distance services.
- It is comparatively easy and cheap to construct and maintain roads.
- It can establish easy contact between farms, fields, factories and markets.
- It is cost efficient and can provide door to door transport services.
IV. Distinguish between
1. Density of population and Growth of population.
|Density of population||Growth of population|
|1. It is a better measure of understanding the variation in distribution of population||Population growth is the difference between birth rate and death rate plus migration of people per year|
|2. It is expressed as number of persons per unit area usually per sq.km.||It is expressed in percentage.|
|3. The most densely populated state of India is Bihar.||Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country.|
2. Personal communication and mass communication.
|Personal communication||Mass communication|
|1. The exchange of information between the individuals is called personal communication.||The spread of information among the people at a same time is known as mass communication|
|2. It includes postal service, telephone, mobile phone, internet, etc.||It includes radio, television, newspapers, etc.|
|3. In this system, news spreads slowly to the public.||The news spread quickly among the people.|
3. Print Media and Electronic Media.
|Print Media||Electronic Media|
|1. It delivers news and information through printed publications.||It delivers news and information through electronic gadgets.|
|2. One should be literate to read the information provided.||Literacy is not necessary. Anyone can watch and hear information provided.|
|3. Live discussion is not possible||Live discussion is possible|
4. Roadways and Railways.
|1. Indian roadways touch nook and corner of the country.||It connects important towns, cities and industrial centres.|
|2. Laying the roads and its maintenance are cheaper.||Laying the railway tracks and its maintenance are costlier.|
|3. Bulk goods cannot be sent easily.||Bulk goods can be sent easily from one place to another.|
5. Waterways and Airways.
|1. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.||Airways are the costliest and fastest mode of transport.|
|2. It is suitable to carry passengers, freights and mail.||It is suitable to carry heavy and bulky goods at low cost.|
|3. Airways pollute the atmosphere||It is fuel efficient and environment friendly more of transport.|
6. Internal trade and International trade.
|Internal trade||International trade|
|1. It is carried within the domestic territory of a country.||It is a trade carried on between two or more countries.|
|2. It is also known as Domestic trade or Local trade.||This is known as Foreign trade or External trade.|
|3. This trade is mostly based on the nation’s currency.||This trade is carried on the foreign currency.|
V. Answer the following in a paragraph:
1. What is urbanization? Explain its problem.
The process of society’s transformation from rural to urban is known as urbanization. The level of urbanization of a place is assessed based on the size of population of the towns and cities and the proportion of population engaged in non agricultural sectors.
Impact of urbanization:
- Urbanization and population concentration go hand–in–hand and are closely related to each other.
- A rapid rate of urbanization in a society is taken as an indicator of its economic development. Urbanization is increasing rapidly in the developing countries including India.
- Rural to urban migration leads to population explosion in urban areas.
- By 2030, more than 50% of India’s population is expected to live in urban areas.
- The following are the major problems of urbanization in India.
i) It creates urban sprawl.
ii) It makes overcrowding in urban centres.
iii) It leads to shortage of houses in urban areas.
iv) It leads to the formation of slums.
v) It increases traffic congestion in cities.
vi) It creates water scarcity in cities.
vii) It creates drainage problem.
viii) It poses the problem of solid waste management.
ix) It increases the rate of crime.
2. Explain the importances of satellite communication in India.
- The use of Satellite in getting a continuous and synoptic view of larger area has made this communication system very vital for the country.
- Satellite images are used for weather forecasting, monitoring of natural calamities, Surveillance of border areas, etc.
- The communication through satellites emerged as a new era in communication in our country after the establishment of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969.
- Satellite system in India can be grouped into two-the Indian National Satellite
- System (INSAT) and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS).
- The INSAT, established in 1983, is a multipurpose system for telecommunication, meteorological observation and for various other programs.
- The INSAT series are used for relaying signals to television, telephone, radio, mobile phone.
- It is also useful in weather detection, internet and military applications.
- The INSAT series, GSAT series, KALPANA-1, HAMSAT, EDUSAT are the major communication satellite used for communication purpose.
- INSAT-1B launched on 30th August 1983 is the first communication satellite in INSAT series.
- GSAT–7A is the recent launch (December 19, 2018) for communication programs.
3. Classify and explain the roadways in India.
Roads play an important role in carrying goods and passengers for short, medium and long distances. For the purpose of construction and maintenance, roads are classified into
- National Highways
- State Highways
- District roads,
- Rural roads
- Border Roads
- Golden Quadrilateral
- North-South and East-West Corridors
- International Highways
- National Highways are running through length and breadth of the country. It connects capitals of states, major ports, rail junctions, industrial and tourist centres.
- Ministry of Road and transport and Highways of India is responsible for the development and maintenance of National Highways.
- The state highways are usually roads that link important cities, towns and district headquarters within the state.
- They connect them with national highways or highways of neighbouring states.
- These roads are maintained by state governments.
- District Roads provide connectivity between the district and taluk headquarters with the state highways and national highways.
- District Roads are constructed and maintained by the Public Works Department of
Rural Roads (Village Roads)
- Rural roads connectivity is a key component of rural development.
- It links the different villages with their neighbouring towns.
- They are maintained by Village Panchayats.
- These are the roads of strategic importance in border areas.
- They are constructed and maintained by Border Roads Organization.
- Golden Quadrilateral is a project launched to connect four Indian metropolitan cities namely Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai-Delhi in 1999.
- It is a 5,846 km long road.
North-South and East-west Corridors:
- North-South corridor aims at connecting Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir with Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu with 4,076 km long road.
- The East-West corridor has been planned to connect Silchar in Assam with the port
town of Porbandar in Gujarat.
- These are multi-lane good quality highways for high speed traffic.
- Some of the important expressways are-
(i) Mumbai-Pune Road,
(ii) Kolkata-Dumdum Airport road
(iii) Durgapur-Kolkata road and
(iv) Yamuna expressway between Delhi and Agra.
- These are the roads that link India with neighbouring countries for promoting harmonious relationship with them. These highways have been constructed with an aid from World Bank.
- These roads connect important highways of India with those of the neighbouring countries such as Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
- Road density is the highest in Kerala and lowest in Jammu & Kashmir.