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Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Books English Medium India Agriculture

Social Science : Geography : Chapter 3 : India – Agriculture

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. The soil which is rich in iron oxides is ________.

  1. Alluvial
  2. Black
  3. Red
  4. Alkaline

Ans : Red

2. Which of the following organization has divided the Indian soils into 8 major groups?

  1. Indian Council of Agricultural Research
  2. Indian Meteorological Department
  3. Soil Survey of India
  4. Indian Institute of Soil Science

Ans : Indian Council of Agricultural Research

3. The soils formed by the rivers are:

  1. Red soils
  2. Black soils
  3. Desert soils
  4. Alluvial soils

Ans : Alluvial soil

4. ________ dam is the highest gravity dam in India.

  1. Hirakud dam
  2. Bhakra Nangal dam
  3. Mettur dam
  4. Nagarjuna Sagar dam

Ans : Bhakra Nangal dam

5. ________ is a cash crop.

  1. Cotton
  2. Wheat
  3. Rice
  4. Maize

Ans : Cotton

6. Black soils are also called as:

  1. Arid soils
  2. Saline soils
  3. Regur soils
  4. Mountain soils

Ans : Regur soils

7. The longest dam in the world is ________.

  1. Mettur dam
  2. Kosi dam
  3. Hirakud dam
  4. Bhakra-Nangal dam

Ans : Hirakud dam

8. Which crop is called as “Golden Fibre” in India?

  1. Cotton
  2. Wheat
  3. Jute
  4. Tobacco

Ans : Jute

II Consider the given statements and choose the correct option from the given below ones

1. Assertion (A) : Horticulture involves cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.

Reason (R) : India ranks first in the world in the production of mango, banana, and citrus fruits.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
  2. Both (A) and (R)are true: (R) does not explain (A)
  3. (A) is correct (R) is false
  4. (A) is false (R) is true

Ans : (A) is correct (R) is false.

2. Assertion (A) : Alluvial soil is formed by the deposition of eroded and decayed materials brought by the rivers.

Reason (R) : Paddy and wheat are grown well in the soil.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
  2. Both (A) and (R)are true and (R) does not explain (A)
  3. (A) is correct (R) is false
  4. (A) is false (R) is true

Ans : Both (A) and (R) are true; R does not explains A

III. Pick the odd one out:

1. a) Wheatb) Ricec) Milletsd) Coffee
Ans : CoffeeReason – Cash crop
2. a) Khadar b) Bhangar c) Alluvial soild) Black soil
Ans : Black soilReason – Suitable for cotton
3. a) Inundational canalsb) Perennial canalsc) Tanksd) Canals
Ans : TanksReason – water can be stored

IV. Match the following:

1. Sugar bowl of IndiaMahanadi
2. CoffeeGolden revolution
3. TehriKarnataka
4. HirakudUttar Pradesh and Bihar
5. HorticultureHighest dam in the India

Ans : 1 – D, 2 – C, 3 – E, 4 – A, 5 – B

V Answer in brief

1. Define soil.

Soil is the uppermost layer of the land surface, usually composed of minerals, organic matter, living organisms, air and water.

2. Name the types of soil found in India.

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Black soils
  3. Red soils
  4. Laterite soils
  5. Forest and mountain soil,
  6. Arid and desert souls
  7. Saline and alkaline souls
  8. Peaty and marshy soils

3. State any two characteristics of black cotton soil.

It consists of calcium and magnesium carbonates, high quantities of iron, aluminium, lime and magnesia. It is rich in potash lime, aluminium, calcium and magnisium.

4. Define Agriculture.

Agriculture is the process of producing food for people, fodder for cattle, fiber and many other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals.

5. State the types of agriculture practices in India.

Subsistence Farming, Shifting Agriculture, Intensive Farming, Dry Farming, Mixed Farming Agriculture and Terrace Cultivation.

6. Name the seasons of agriculture in India.

  • Kharif season – June – September
  • Rabiseason – October – March
  • Zaid season – April – June

9. Mention the plantation crops of India.

  • Tea
  • coffee
  • rubber
  • spices

are the major plantation crops of india.

8. What do you mean by livestock?

Livestock is an integral component of the farming system in India. The livestock sector is socially and economically very significant due to its multi-functional outputs and contribution to socio-cultural security. Livestock includes domesticated animals such as goats, buffaloes, sheep, pigs etc.

9. Write a brief note on the categories of fisheries in India.

  • Fisheries in India are a very important economic activity and a flourishing sector with varied resources and potentials.
  • There are 2 types of fishing categories. They are

1) Marine or Sea Fisheries

2) Inland or Fresh Water Fisheries

VI. Give reasons

1. Agriculture is the backbone of India.

Agriculture in India employs more than 50 percent of the population of the country and accounts for about 25 percent of the national income. So agriculture is considered as the backbone of India.

2. Rain water harvesting is necessary.

In India rainfall is not uniform and is highly erratic. Most of the time the rainfall is scanty. So it is necessary to save the available rainwater. In order to prevent surface run off rainwater harvesting is necessary.

VII Distinguish between the following

1. Rabi and Kharif crop seasons.

Rabi cropKharif crop
1. The season is from October to MarchThe season is from June to September
2. Wheat, gram, Rapeseeds, Mustard and Barley are grown in the northern states.Rice, Cotton, Bajra, Maize, Jowar and Tur are grown in northern states.
3. Rice, Maize, Ragi, Groundnut and. Jowar are grown in southern states.Rice, Maize, Ragi, Groundnut and Jowar are grown in southern states.
4. Crops grow in warm weatherCrops grow in hot weather.

2. Inundational canal and perennial canal.

Inundational canalperennial canal.
1. Water is taken out directly from the rivers without making any kind of barrage or dam.These are developed from perennial rivers by constructing barrage to regulate the flow of water.
2. Such canals are useful for the diversion of flood water from the rivers. They remain operational during rainy season.These canals are useful for irrigation. Most of the  canals of India fall under this category.

3. Marine fishing and Inland fishing.

Marine fishingInland fishing.
1. It includes coastal, off-shore and deep sea fisheries mainly on the continental shelf upto a depth of 200 m.Rivers, lakes, canals, reservoirs, ponds, tanks, etc. are the sources of freshwater and provide freshwater fisheries.
2. Kerala leads in the marine fish production in India.Andhra Pradesh leads in the inland fish production in India.
3. In 2014-15, the total marine fish production was 34.91 lakh tonnes.In 2014-15, the total Inland or freshwater fish production was 65.77 lakh tonnes.

4. Alluvial soils and Black soils.

Alluvial soils Black soil
1. Itis formed by sediments deposited by streams and rivers.It is derrved from basalts of Deccan trap.
2. It is sandy-loam-silt-clay in nature.It is sticky when wet in nature.
3. Its profile shows no marked differentiation.It has high degree of moisture retentivity.
Rich in Potash, Phosphoric acid, limes and Carbon compounds. Magnesium.Rich in Potash lime, Aluminium, Calcium and Magnesium
5. Crops like Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane & Oil seeds grow here.Crops like Cotton, Millets, Tobacco and  Sugarcane grow here.

IX. Answer in detail:

1. State the types of soil in India and: explain the characteristics and distribution of soil.

Soil Type CharacteristicsDistribution Cropsgrowing
Alluvial soilKhadar – light coloured, more siliceous.Bhangar – the older alluvium composed of lime nodules and has clayey composition. It is dark in colour.Formation – sediments deposited by streams and rivers when they slowly looseChemical properties – rich in potash, phosphoric acid, lime and carbon compounds but poor in nitrogenNature –Sandy-loam-silt-clayprofile shows no marked differentiationGanga and Brahmaputra
river valleys; Plains of Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal and Bihar and river mouth of east coast.
Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane and Oilseeds
Black soilsFormation – Derived from basalts of Deccan trap.
Colour – black colour, due to presence of titanium, iron.
Chemical properties – Consist of calcium and magnesium corbonates, high quantities of iron, aluminium, lime and magnesia.
Rich in potash lime, Aluminium calcium and magnesium poor in Nitrogen Phosphoric acid and humus
Nature – Sticky when wet
High degree of moisture retentivity
Maharashtra and Malwa plateaus, Kathiawar
peninsula, Telangana and Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh and northern part of Karnataka
Cotton, Millets, Tobacco and Sugarcane
Red soilsFormation – decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks like granites and gneisses and from rock type
Chemical properties – rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium.
Deficient in nitrogen, humus, phosphoric acid and lime.
Nature – Light texture, porous friable presence of limited soluble salts Clay fraction of the red soils generally consists of Kaolinitic minerals.
Eastern parts of Deccan plateau, southern states
of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Chota
Nagpur plateau (Jharkhand)
Wheat, Rice, Cotton,
Sugarcane and Pulses
Laterite soilsFormation – formed in the regions where alternate wet and hot dry conditions prevail. It is formed by the process of leaching
Chemical properties – Composed mainly of hydrated oxides of iron and aluminium,
Nature – More acidic on higher areas poor in high level, cannot retain moisture while plains they consist of heavy loam and clay and easily retain moisture
Assam hills, hill summits of Kerala and Karnataka and eastern Ghats and region of OdishaCoffee, Rubber, Cashewnut and Tapioca

2. Write about any two Multipurpose projects in India.

Multipurpose project is a scientific management of water resources in India. Construction of dams across rivers is aimed at many purposes. Hence it is termed as multipurpose projects. The other purpose are irrigation, hydropower generation, water supply, drinking, industrial purpose, controlling floods, development of fisheries, navigation etc…

There are many multipurpose projects in India. Let us see two of them

Bhakra Nangal project:

  • Bhakra Nangal project is constructed across the river Sutle.
  • It is the highest gravity dam in India.
  • The states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan are benefited by this project.
  • The area of irrigation is 52609 sq.km.
  • 1500 Megawatt electricity is produced from this dam.

Hirakud project:

  • Hirakud project is constructed across the river Mahanadhi in Odisha.
  • This is the longest dam in the world.
  • The state benefited by this project is Odisha.
  • The area of irrigation is 1,41,600 sq.km.
  • 347.5 megawatt electricity is produced from this dam.

3. Bring out the characteristics of Intensive and Plantation farming.

Intensive farming:

  • Intensive farming is an agricultural intensification and mechanization system. It aims to maximise yields from available land through various means, such as heavy use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
  • This intensification and mechanisation has also been applied to the raising of livestock with billions of animals, such as cows, pigs and chickens, being held indoors.
  • They have become known as factory farms. Intensive farming is practiced m Punjab, parts of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh in India.
  • Plantation forming is practised in West Bangal, Kerala, Tamilnadu and Karnataka.

Plantation farming:

  • Plantation crops are cultivated for the purpose of exports. These are cultivated in large estates on hilly slopes. Cultivation near the coast is preferable as it facilitates exports. Tea, coffee, rubber and spices are the major plantation crops of India.
  • Plantation farming is practised in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamilnadu and Karnataka.

4, Examine the geographical conditions favourable for the cultivation of rice and wheat.


  • Rice is an indigenous crop.
  • India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. It is mainly a tropical crop, growing mainly with mean temperatures of 24°C and annual rainfall of 150 cm.
  • Deep fertile clayey or loamy soils are suited well for rice cultivation. It also needs abundant supply of cheap labour.


  • Wheat is the second most important food crop of the country, after rice.
  • It accounts for 22% of the total area and 34 % of the total production of food grams in the country.
  • It requires 10-15°C at the time of sowing and 20-25°C at the time of ripening of grains.
  • Over 85% of the India’s wheat production comes from 5 states namely Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Apart from these regions, the black soil tract of the Deccan covering parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat also contribute a major wheat production.

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