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Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Books English Medium The Classical World

Social Science : History : Chapter 5 : The Classical World

I Choose the correct answer

1. …………… is the Greek city-state which resisted the Persians to the end.

  1. Acropolis
  2. Sparta
  3. Athens
  4. Rome

Ans: c) Athens

2. The other name for Greeks was ……………

  1. Hellenists
  2. Hellenes
  3. Phoenicians
  4. Spartans

Ans: a) Hellenists

3. The founder of Han dynasty was ……………

  1. Wu Ti
  2. Hung Chao
  3. Liu Pang
  4. Mangu Khan

Ans : c) Liu Pang

4. …………… was the Roman Governor responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus.

  1. Innocent I
  2. Hildebrand
  3. Leo I
  4. Pontius Pilate

Ans : d) Pontius Pilate

5. The Peloponnesian War was fought between …………… and ……………

  1. Greeks and Persians
  2. Plebeians and Patricians
  3. Spartans and Athenians
  4. Greeks and Romans

Ans : c)

II Find out the correct statement

1. (i) First Persian attack on Greece failed.

(ii) The downfall of Roman Empire is attributed to Julius Caesar.

(iii) The Barbarians who invaded Rome were considered to be culturally advanced.

(iv) Buddhism weakened the Roman Empire.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (ii) is correct
  3. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  4. (iv) is correct

Ans : a) (i) are correct

2. (i) Euclid developed a model for the motion of planets and stars.

(ii) Romans established a republic after overthrowing Etruscans.

(iii) Acropolis became a famous slave market.

(iv) Rome and Carthage united to drive out the Greeks.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (ii) is correct
  3. (ii) and (iv) are correct
  4. (iv) is correct.

Ans : c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

3. (i) Silk road was closed during the Han dynasty.

(ii) Peasant uprisings posed threats to Athenian democracy.

(iii) Virgil’s Aeneid glorified Roman imperialism.

(iv) Spartacus killed Julius Caesar.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (ii) is correct
  3. (ii) and (iv) are correct
  4. (iii) is correct.

Ans : d) (iii) is correct

4. (i) Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius was a tyrant.

(ii) Romulus Aurelius was the most admired ruler in Roman History.

(iii) Fabius was a famous Carthaginian General.

(iv) Tacitus is respected more than Livy as a historian.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (ii) is correct
  3. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  4. (iv) is correct.

Ans : a) (i) is correct

5. (i) Buddhism went to China from Japan

(ii) After crucifixion of Jesus, St Thomas spread the Christian doctrine

(iii) St Sophia Cathedral was the most magnificent building in Europe

(iv) Trajan was one of the worst dictators Rome had.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (ii) is correct
  3. (iii) is correct
  4. (iv) is correct

Ans : c) (iii) is correct

III Match the following

 1. AcropolisConsul
2. PlatoAthens
3. MariusPhilosopher
4. ZeusMaterialist
5. EpicurusA fortified city

Ans : 1 – E, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – B, 5 – D

IV Fill in the blanks

1. Greeks defeated the Persians at …………..

Ans : Marathan

2. ………….. stood in favour of poor peasants in Roman republic.

Ans : Gracchus brothers

3. Buddhism came to China from India during the reign of ………….. dynasty.

Ans : Han

4. The most magnificent building in Europe was ………………….

Ans : St. Sophia Cathedral

5. ……………. and ……………..were Magistrates in Rome.

Ans : Consuls and Senators

V Answer all questions given under each heading

1. Emergence of Rome as an empire

a) Who were the Gracchus brothers?

Tiberius Gracchus and Garius do Gracchus.

b) What role did they play?

They favoured the poor peasants.

c) What was the outcome of their martyrdom?.

The outcome was the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

d) Who was the first Roman Emperor?


2. Han Dynasty:

a) Who was the founder of Han Empire ?

Liu Pang.

b) What was the capital of Han Empire?


c) Where did they have their new capital?


d) Who was the powerful ruler of the Han dynasty?

Wu – Ti.

VI Answer the following briefly

1. Attempt an account of slavery in Rome.

  • Prisoners of war were enslaved in Rome. Thus, Rome produced a new labour force for the rich.
  • Big landholders bought slaves cheaply and used them in their estates.
  • Slave labour led to the impoverishment of free labour.
  • Many poor peasants had to abandon their children who also ended up in the slave markets.

2. Highlight the main contribution of Constantine.

  • One of the Roman Emperors, Constantine himself became the Christian.
  • He made Christianity as the official region of the Roman Empire.

3. What do you know of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal?

  • Hannibal was the General of Carthage, a province in North Africa. He waged three wars with Rome which are known as Punic Wars.
  • In the First Punic War, he defeated the Roman army which was led by Fabius and made a great part of Italy a desert.
  • In the Second Punic War, Fabius confronted Hannibal and defeated him in the battle of Zama. Pursued (chased) by the Roman army, Hannibal ended his life by poisoning himself.
  • In the third Punic War, Carthaginians were defeated by the Romans. After the victory, Rome emerged as an unrivalled power in the Western world.

4. What were the reasons for the prosperity of Han Empire?

  • Han Empire reopened the Silk Road for trade and exported a lot of goods especially silk as far as the Roman Empire.
  • They introduced new techniques like the methods of harnessing horses, use of saddle and stirrup that attracted the Europeans to their empire.
  • Innovative techniques such as building bridges and mountain roads and seafaring (maritime) made the Hun Empire prosperous.

5. Write about St. Sophia Cathedral.

  • St. Sophia Cathedral was built in the mid of sixth century A.D (CE).
  • It was the most magnificent building in Europe at that time.
  • It was known for its innovative architectural techniques.
  • This cathedral was turned into a mosque by the Ottoman Turks when they captured Constantinople.

VII Answer the following in detail

1. Discuss the rise and growth of Athens, pointing out its glorious legacy.

  • Pericles was a great leader of Athens who held power for thirty years (461 – 429 BC). During his period, Athens and Sparta were fighting with each other.
  • Athens, despite hostility and disturbance from Sparta, became a noble city with magnificent buildings.
  • There were great artists and thinkers. Therefore, the historians call this period as the Age of Pericles.
  • Herodotus, the historian and his successor, Thucydides lived during this period. The thinkers of the Pericles era sought to find a new objective basis for arriving at truth.
  • Socrates, the great philosopher discussed the difficult problems with his friends so that truth might emerge out of the discussions.
  • Plato was his illustrious disciple. He argued that truth must depend on a realm outside human experience, accessible only to philosophic elite.
  • Aristotle, studied under Plato, laid stress on the empirical knowledge of the existing physical and social world.
  • Democritus and Epicurus developed a materialist view of the world.

2. Write about India’s position during classical position.

  • The Kushan period corresponded with the last days of the Roman Republic.
  • The Kushan Empire is said to have sent an embassy to Augusus Caesar who succeeded Julius.
  • The corresponding period 4th and 5th century A.D. in South India characterized as Kalabhra period.
  • Teak wood, Pepper, Pearls, ivory, Brocades and Precious stones were exported from Malabar coast.
  • The goods were sent to Babylonia, Egypt, Greece and Rome.
  • Trade with Rome flourished during this period.
  • Eighteen major works of Sangam Age such as Ettuthogai and Pathu pattu compiled during the first three centuries of common Era.

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