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Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Books English Medium Mapping Skills

Social Science : Geography : Chapter 7 : Mapping Skills

I. Choose the correct answer

1. The new phase in topographical surveying in the 20th century is ……………

  1. Toposheets
  2. Aerial photography
  3. Maps
  4. Satellite imagery

Ans : b) Aerial photography

2. …………… indicates the purpose of theme of the map.

  1. Title
  2. Scale
  3. Direction
  4. Legend

Ans : (a) Title

3. Standard symbols that are used in map to convey a definite meaning are called ……………

  1. Conventional signs and symbols
  2. Coordinates
  3. Grid reference
  4. Directions

Ans : a) Conventional signs and symbols

4. Which one of the following maps show us a very large area with less details?

  1. Large Scale
  2. Thematic
  3. Physical
  4. Small scale

Ans : a) Large Scale

5. GPS consists of a constellation of …………… satellities.

  1. 7
  2. 24
  3. 32
  4. 64

Ans : b) 24

II. Consider the given statements and choose the right option given below

1. Assertion (A) : The points at which the vertical and horizontal lines of the grid intersect are called coordinates.

Reason (R) : The lines that run horizontally and vertically are called Northings and Easting respectively.

  1. Both A and R are true; (R) explains (A)
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true; but (R) does not explain (A)
  3. (A) is correct; (R) is false
  4. (A) is false; (R) are true.

Ans : a) Both A and R are true; (R) explains (A)

2. Assertion (A) : The legend of a map does not help us to underastand the information in a map.

Reason (R) : It is usually placed at the left or right corner at the bottom of the map.

  1. (A) is false; (R) are true.
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true; but (R) does not explain (A)
  3. (A) is correct; (R) is false
  4. Both A and R are true; (R) explains (A)

Ans : a) (A) is false; (R) are true.

III Match the following

1. Te art and science of mappingUSA
2. Tematic mappingGeoid
3. Actual shape of the earthInmarsat
4. A satellitePolitical map
5. NAVSTARCartography

Ans : 1 – E, 2 – D, 3 – B, 4 – C, 5 – A

IV. Answer the following in brief: 

1. Name the different methods to represent the Earth.

Maps and Globes are the different methods to represent the Earth.

2. What is a map?

  • A map is defined as the miniature image of the 3 dimensional earth’s surcace on a paper/ cloth or any flat surface.
  • Maps can show a whole or part of the world.

3. What are the components of a map?

The components of the map are

  1. Title
  2. Scale
  3. Direction
  4. Grid system
  5. Projection
  6. Legend
  7. Conventional signs
  8. Symbols

4. The distance between two cities A and B is 5 km. It is represented by a line of 5 cm on the map. Calculate the distance and give the answer in RF.

To find Representative= Distance on the map / Distance on ground
= 5cm / 5cm
1 cm= 1 km
RF= 5 cm / 5 km
so, 5 : 500000 (or) 1 : 100000  Therefore, RF is 1 : 1,00,000 cm

5. Mention a few surveying instruments.

A few surveying instruments are-

  1. Chain
  2. Prismatic compass
  3. Plane table
  4. Dumpy level
  5. Abney level
  6. Clinometre
  7. Theodolite
  8. Total station
  9. GNSS

6. Define : Remote sensing.

  • Remote sensing refers to the observation and measurement of earthy objects without touching them.
  • ‘Remote’ means far way and ‘Sensing’ means observing or collecting information.
  • Remote sensing means acquiring information of things/places from a distance using a various of tools and methods.

7. What are the components of remote sensing?

The components of remote sensing are-

  • Energy source
  • Transmission path
  • Target
  • Sensor

V. Give reasons for the following: 

1. Satellite imageries stimulate map making.

  • Satellite images which are accurate photographs of the Earth’s surface allow cartographers to precisely determine the location of roads, cities, rivers, and other features on the Earth.
  • These images help cartographers create maps that are more accurate than ever before.
  • Satellite images are great tools that allow cartographers to stay up-to-date.

2. Map is the basic tool of a geographer.

  • Map is a two-dimensional drawing of the earth’s surface. It can be very simple or very detailed.
  • It shows natural landmarks like mountains and lakes and also show man-made boundaries like state lines or roads and trails.
  • For centuries, maps have been the primary way to record geographic information and the primary way to get around.

3. Grid references are essential to find the exact location of places on a map.

  • The local of a place can be simply defined by its latitude and longitude.
  • In normal practice, latitude is started first and then comes the longitude.
  • The latitude and longitude of a place can be expressed in units of degree, minutes and seconds

VI. Distinguish between

1. Globe and Map

1. Globe is the three diamentional of the Earth.Map is a two dimensional presentation of Earth.
2. Globe is not portable and useMap is easy to use and portable.
3. Rotation and revolution of the Earth can be taught with the help of globe.Map can not be used for these purposes.
4. Conventional symbols cannot be shown on the globle.Convention symbols are useful in the maps

2. Large scale map and small scale map

Large Scale MapSmall Scale Map
1. Large scale maps show a small area in greater detailSmall scale maps show a larger area in less detail.
2. They are guide maps or topographic mapsThey are wall maps or atlas maps.
3. Details of cities, towns and villages are shown in these mapThey show important features like mountains, plateaus, continents and countries.
4. The scale may be 1cm = 50 m or 1 kmThe scale may be 1cm = 100 km.

3. Aerial photographs and satellite imageries

Rural SettlementUrban Settlement
1. It covers a small area normally a few square kilometers.It covers a very large area which ranges from 3,500 to 30,000 Square Kilometers.
2. These photographs are taken from an altitude of a few hundred metres.Satellite imageries are taken from an altitude of a few hundred Kilometers.
3. Surveys are highly expensive.Much less expensive compared to aerial survey.
4. Surveys are adversely affected by bad weather.It is not affected by bad weather.

4. GIS and GPS

1. GIS stands for Global Positioning System.GPS stands for Geographical Information System.
2.GIS is a software program that helps people use the information that is collected from the GPS satellitesGPS uses satellites that orbit Earth to send information to GPS receivers that are on the ground

VII. Answer in a paragraph:

1. What do you mean by the term ‘scale of the map’? Explain its classifications.

A scale is a ratio between the actual distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground.0 Scale makes it possible to reduce the size of the whole Earth to show it on a piece of paper. Scales can be represented in three methods.

They are

Statement scale:

  • The statement scale describes the relationship of map distance to ground distance in words.
  • For example, one centimeter is to ten kilometers. It is expressed as 1 cm = 10 km.

Representative Fraction:

  • It describes the proportion or ratio of the map distance to ground distance.
  • It is usually abbreviated as R.F.
  • It is stated as 1/100000 or 1:100000. This means that one unit on the map represents 100,000 of the same unit on the ground.

Liner (or) Graphical scale:

  • Liner Scale is represented by a straight line divided into equal parts to show what these markings represent on the actual ground.
  • This scale helps in the direction measurement of distance on the map.

2. Write a note on directions with relevant diagram.

  • Maps are drawn normally with north orientation.
  • North direction in a map is always towards the North Pole of the Earth.
  • The top of the map always show the North and the bottom is the South.
  • The Four directions such as East, West, North and South are called the Cardinal directions.
  • Direction is usually indicated on a map by a North-South line with the North direction represented by an arrow head

3. Explain the major uses of GPS? Explain about any one.

Major uses of GPS:

  • Helps in providing accurate transport data
  • Helps in minary searches and rescue in wars
  • Acts as a reliable tourist guide
  • Helps rescue efforts at the time accidents
  • Speeding the delivery of emergency services
  • Useful to find the lost vehicles

Disaster relief:

Weather forecasting, earthquake monitoring and environment protection can be done effectively by using GPS. During the time of disaster, relief measures can be taken at the right time and right direction with the help of GPS.

4. Bhavan has tremendous uses for scientists, policy makers and the general public Justify.

  • Bhuvan (Sanskrit for Earth) is a free internet based computer application launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation.
  • It was launched in 2009 which enables visualization of Indian Remote Sensing images taken over a year ago.
  • The Remote sensing images are taken by ISRO’s seven satellites including CartoSat-1 and CartoSat – 2.
  • Using Bhuvan, one can explore the places of interest, scenes of events in the news and parts around the world by entering the names or places or co-ordinates.
  • Bhuvan has tremendous used for scientists, academicians, policy makers and the general public.

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