Social Science : History : Chapter 4 : Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes
I. Choose the correct answer
1. Identify the founder of a new sect who exemplified simplicity and self-denial.
Ans : a) Buddha
2. The Magadha king influenced by the teaching of Mahavira.
Ans : c) Bimbisara
3. The Northern India extended from the Kabul Valley in the North to the Godavari in the South witnessed the rise of sixteen states.
Ans : a) Mahajanapadas
4. Tri-ratnas are the three principles taught by ……………
Ans : b) Mahavira
5. The account which throws light on Mauryan polity and society is ……………
- Marco Polo
Ans : c) Megasthanes
6. i) Under the Magadha king, the Mahamatriyas functioned as secretaries to the ministers.
ii) Accounts of Megasthanes titiled Indica is a useful record about Mauryan polity and society.
iii) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka who found the Mauryan Kingdom.
iv) According to tradition towards the end of the life Chandragupta become an ardent follower of Buddhism.
- (i) is correct.
- (ii) is correct
- (i) and (ii) is correct
- (iii) and (iv) is correct
Ans: b) (ii) is correct
II. Fill in the blanks
1. ………….. is a collection of sacred literature of different epochs, containing prayers, confessions and myths.
Ans : Zend Avesta
2. In the Gangetic plan, ………….. agriculture required the use of bullock.
Ans : Iron plough
3. Jains believe that ………….. came in a long line of Tirthankaras and he was the twenty fourth
and the last.
Ans : Mahavira
4. The place where Buddha attained enlightenment has been built into the Mahabodhi temple that still exists in …………..
Ans : Bodh Gaya (Bihar)
5. The rock edicts form the reliable source to know about the Mauryan empire in particular the Dharmic rule of …………..
Ans : Ashoka
III. Find out the correct statement
1. a) The introduction of Bronze tools made easy the removal of dense forest cover from the banks of the Ganges.
b) Ajivikas had a small presence in Western India.
c) The clusters where particular clansmen were dominant came to be known were preMauryan States.
d) Of the kingdoms mentioned in the literature of the period Kashi, Kosala and Magadha are considered to be powerful.
Ans: d) is the correct statement
2. a) Ajatashatru was the first important king of Magadha.
b) Bimbisara succeeded in establishing a comprehensive structure of administration.
c) The Mauryas were the first of non-Kshatriya dynasties to rule in Northern India.
d) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka.
Ans: b) is the correct statement
IV. Match the following
|1. Eight-fold path||tallest Jaina statue|
|2. Bahubali||a code of political morality|
|3. The Spring and Autumn Annals||sacred literature of laws and myths|
|4. Zend Avesta||first Tirthankara|
|5. Rishabha||path to attain the purest state of mind|
Ans : 1 – E, 2 – A, 3 – B, 4 – C, 5 – D
V. Answer the following briefly
1. The invention of smelting of iron transformed both production and warfare – Justify.
- Copper and its alloy, bronze were employed in production before Iron. They were expensive and the edges became blunt quickly.
- Iron ore, in contrast, was available in abundance compared to copper or bronze.
- Iron axe enable cultivators to clear the jungles and the iron plough was used to break the hardest soil. Likewise, weapons made out of iron were useful to kill animals and enemies in the battle field.
- Thus, the invention of smelting of iron transformed both production and warfare.
2. Elaborate the term “Tri Ratnas”.
The teachings of Mahavira are known as ‘Tri Ratnas’. The three principles of Jainism are as
- Right faith
- Right knowledge
- Right action
3. What do you known of Ajatasatru?
- Ajatashatru, the son of Bimbisara is said to have murdered his father and came to power.
- He ascended the throne of Magadha in 493 BCE and followed the policy of conquest.
- His capital city was Rajagriha provided protection to the kingdom from external threats.
4. What does the Edict of Kalinga convey?
- Kalinga was under the rule of the Nanda Empire until the empire’s fall in 321 BCE.
- Ashoka conquered the Kalinga eight years after his coronation.
- A large number of soldiers were killed and equal numbers of people were deported.
- This war and slaughter affected Ashoka so much and decided to give up war.
- The War converted Ashoka to Buddhism and prompted to devote the rest of his life to ahimsa (non-violence) and to dharma-vijaya (victory through dharma).
5. Highlight the steps taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism.
- Ashoka built a large number of monasteries all over the empire and spent large sums money in endowing them.
- He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rocks, pillars and on the walls of the caves throughout the empire.
- Ashoka appointed officers called Dharma Mahamatras, Yuktas and Rajjukas to spread Buddhism.
- He organised the Third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra to settle the internal issues among the monks.
- Ashoka sent missionaries to preach Buddhism in the East Asian countries. He sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sangamitra to Sri Lanka.
VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption
a) Who was the founder?
Zoroaster of Perisa.
b) Name the god worshipped by the Parsis?
Ahura Maza (Lord of Light).
c) What did Zoroaster teach?
Zoroaster taught that the great object of religion, state of society is the cultivation of morality.
d) What was the highest form of worship?
2. Gautama Buddha:
a) What was the original name of Buddha?
b) Name the birth place of Buddha.
Lumbini garden near Kapilavastu.
c) Where did he get enlightenment?
Bodh Gaya (Bihar).
d) Mention the place of his sermon.
He gave his first sermon at Saranath.
VII. Answer the following in detail
1. Discuss the five cardinal principles of Confucius.
Confucius was born in 551 BCE. He studied history, poetry, philosophy and music. He wrote five books which gave moral information to the Chinese. His five Cardinal principles are
- Wisdom and
- Confucius said that wisdom grows from the family. The foundation of society is the disciplined individual in an orderly family.
- According to him, superior man is not merely intelligent or scholarly but his character
should be exemplary.
- He pointed that the Superior man possesses three virtues such as intelligence, courage and good will.
- The philosophy of Confucius gave the Chinese people awareness about their political rights.
- He also clearly list the duties of the government towards the people and also stated that the government should work with an ideal.
- He advised that the ruler must appoint persons of character in the government to govern the people impartially.
2. Compare and contrast the principles of Jainism and Buddhism.
- ainism and Buddhism exemplified simplicity and self-denial.
- Both the religion opposed the domination of Brahmans, costly and elaborate rituals and sacrifices.
- Both the religion emphasized Ahimsa or non-violence.
- Both the religion advised the people to do good deeds and lead a moral and disciplined life.
- Both the leaders spread their principles only through the common language of the people – Pali.
- Before Mahavira, there were twenty Tirthankaras. They spread their own principles among the people. No one was there before .Buddha. He attained enlightenment and spread his ideas.
- Jainism insisted three principles to attain nirvana. But, Buddha gave Eight Fold Path to attain the purest state of mind.
- Later days, Buddha was worshipped as god. In Jainism, Mahavira was not worshipped as god.