Social Science : History : Chapter 11 : Colonialism in Asia and Africa
I. Choose the correct answer
1. …………… was brought to the attention of the East India Company by Francis Light.
- Spice islands
- Java island
- Penang island
Ans : c) Penang island
2. In 1896, …………… states were formed into Federated Malay States
Ans : a) Four
3. …………… was the only part of Indo-China which was directly under French Control.
- Tong king
Ans : d) Cochin-China
4. The Discovery of gold in the …………… led to a large number of British miners settled in and around Johannesburg.
- Orange Free State
- Cape Colony
Ans : a) Transvaal
5. …………… became the first European power to establish trade with India.
Ans : a) Portuguese
6. Ethiopia defeated Italy at the battle of ……………
Ans : a) Adowa
7. Indentured labour system was a form of ……………
- Contract labour system
- Debt bondage
Ans : c) Debt bondage
II Fill in the blanks
1. ………….. Conference resolved to divide Africa into spheres of influence of the various European Powers.
Ans : Berlin Colonial
2. The settlement made with the zamindars of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa is …………..
Ans : Permanent Settlement
3. ………….. was the main source of revenue for the British.
Ans : Land tax
4. ………….. were money lenders in the Tamil speaking areas.
Ans : Nattukottai Chettiyars
III Match the following
|3. Cecil Rhodes||Belgium|
|4. Bengal famine||Cape colony|
|5. Bao Dai||1770|
Ans : 1 – C, 2 – E, 3 – D, 4 – E, 5 – B
IV. Choose the correct statement
1. i) Until the last quarter of the 19th century, Africa south of Sahara was unknown to the world.
ii) The coastal states of Gold Coast became a British colony in 1864.
iii) Spain ruled the Philippines for over 500 years.
iv) The famine of 1876–78 occurred in Odisha.
- (i) is Correct
- (ii) is Correct
- (ii) & (iii) are correct
- (iv) is correct
Ans : a) (i) is Correct
2. i) The French had occupied Java and Sumatra in 1640.
ii) The Dutch began their conquest of the English Settlements by capturing Malacca.
iii) Berlin Conference met to decide all issues connected with the Congo River basin.
iv) The possessions of Sultan of Zanzibar were divided into French and German spheres of influence.
- (i) is correct
- (ii) & (i) are correct
- (iii) is correct
- (iv) is correct
Ans : c) (iii) is correct
3. Assertion (A) : In the Madras Presidency, the famine of 1876-78 was preceded by droughts.
Reason (R) : Because of the colonial government’s policy of Laissez Faire in the trade of food-grains.
- A is correct, R is wrong
- Both A & R are wrong
- A is correct , R is not the correct explanation of A
- A is correct, R is the correct
Ans : c) A is correct , R is not the correct explanation of A
4. Assertion (A) : Berlin Conference agreed to the rule of Leopold II in Congo Free State.
Reason (R) : Leopold II, King of Belgium, showed interest in Congo.
- Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
- Both A and R are correct and R is not the correct explanation of A
- A is correct and R is wrong.
- A is wrong but R is correct
Ans : a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
V. Answer all the questions given under each caption
1. Colonialism in India :
a) When did the East India Company acquire the Diwani Right?
b) When were the Gurkhas conquered by the British?
c) When was slavery abolished in British India?
d) When did Burma become a part of the Madras Presidency?
2. South Africa :
a) Name the states possessed by the British in South Africa
Natal and Cape Colony.
b) What were the territories held by the Dutch?
Transvaal and Orange Free State.
c) Who was the Prime Minister of Cape colony?
d) How long did Boer Wars last?
VI. Answer the following questions briefly
1. Distinguish between Colonialism and Imperialism.
- Colonialism is a process of domination involving the subjugation of one people by another.
- Imperialism involves political and economic control over a dependent territory.
2. Write a note on Zulu tribe.
- The Zulu tribe was known for its strong fighting spirit represented by renowned warriors like Shaka Zulu.
- He played a prominent role in building the largest Zulu nation in South-eastern Africa.
- British troops invaded Zulu territory and divided in into thirteen chiefdoms.
- After that, the Zulus never regained their independence.
3. State the three phases in the colonialisation of Indian economy.
The three phases in the colonization of Indian economy are –
- Phase – I – Mercantilist Capitalism
- Phase – II – Industrial Capitalism
- Phase – III – Financial Capitalism
4. Colonel Pennycuick.
- Colonel Pennycuick was an army Engineer and Civil Servant.
- He also served as a member of the Madras Legislative Council.
- He decided to divert the West flowing Periyar River draining into the Arabian Sea to the East so that it could irrigate lakhs of acres of dry land.
- He started the construction of dam. He could not get adequate funds from the British Government.
- So, he went to England, sold his family property to mobilise money to fund the project and completed the Mullai Periyar Dam in 1895.
5. Explain Home Charges.
- The imperialistic policy of the British government in India led to wars against regional rulers. The cost of these internal conquests was imposed on India.
- Apart from above, the amount collected as dividends on East India’s stock, interest on debt, savings from salaries and the pensions of officers and establishments and buildings in the India Office, London and transporting cost of British troops is called as Home Charges.
- This was remitted to England by the company.
VII Answer in detail
1. Discuss the economic impact of British Rule in India.
India was a wealthiest nation before the entry of British into India. Their imperialistic policy and economic policy slowly converted India to poor country. The economic impacts of British Rule in India are as follows-
- Permanent Settlement introduced Zamindary system in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Zamindars were made the owners of the land and the cultivators were reduced to the position of mere tenants.
- The land tax was the main source of revenue to the British. It was collected forcibly. Even in times of famines, no remission was given to the peasants.
- The colonial state pursued a policy of ‘commercialization of agriculture’. The government forced to cultivate Commercial crops instead of food crops. So he had to depend on the price trend in international markets for selling his goods.
- The British neglected irrigation in the first half of 19th century. Major irrigation canals were built only after millions of people died in a series of major famines that broke out periodically from the middle of 19th century.
- The policy of free trade and the forcible collection of land revenue resulted in the outbreak of famines. These famines were typically followed by various infectious diseases such as bubonic plague and influenza which took millions of lives.
- The Indentured Labour system was a form of debt bondage by which a number of Indians were transported to various British colonies.
2. Explain the process of colonisation in Africa.
Africa south of the Sahara (Sub-Sahara Africa) was almost unknown to the outside world. The interior of Africa was unexplored. After 1875, European penetration and colonization began on a large scale.
- The British possessed Natal and Cape Colony. The Dutch (locally known as the Boers) held the states of the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
- The Boers War which was fought between the British and the Dutch lasted for three years (1899-1902). In the end, the Boers were defeated and the British occupied Pretoria.
- The British South Africa Company was found in 1889 which conducted an expedition on the Bechuanaland. During the next ten years, African opposition was crushed. The area was occupied and came to be called Rhodesia after Cecil Rhodes.
- The coastal states of Gold Coast became a British colony in 1854. Nigeria also came under the British.
- Senegal became a French base in West Coast. Her later possessions of Guinea, Ivory Coast and Dahomey were linked up with the whole are of South of Sahara.
- Leopold II, King of Belgium controlled Congo up to 1908. Africans were subjected to force labour. If the Africans failed to pay the taxes, they were flogged and mutilated. So, the Belgian government took over the control from Leopold II, the king.
- The British government introduced Protectorate in East Africa and controlled Kenya, Uganda and Zansibar.
- The Germans established their rule in German East Africa. The Portuguese had two colonies
- One on the West and another on East Coast along with Portuguese Guinea