Social Science : History : Chapter 2 : Ancient Civilisations
I. Choose the correct answer
1. The earliest signs to denote words through pictures – ……………
Ans : b) Pictographic
2. The preservation process of dead body in ancient Egypt – ……………
Ans : c) Mummification
3. The Sumerian system of writing – ……………
Ans : d) Cuneiform
4. The Harappans did not have the knowledge of ……………
- Gold and Elephant
- Horse and Iron
- Sheep and Silver
- Ox and Platinum
Ans : b) Horse and Iron
5. The Bronze image suggestive of theuse of lost-wax process known to the Indus people – …………
- Priest king
- Dancing girl
Ans : c) Dancing girl
6. (i) The oldest civilisation in Mesopotamia belonged to the Akkadians.
(ii) The Chinese developed the Hieroglyphic system.
(iii) The Euphrates and Tigris drain into the Mannar Gulf.
(iv) Hammurabi, the king of Babylon was a great law maker.
- (i) is correct
- (i) and (ii) are correct
- (iii) is correct
- (iv) is correct
Ans : d) (iv) is correct
7. (i) Yangtze River is known as Sorrow of China.
(ii) Wu-Ti constructed the Great Wall of China.
(iii) Chinese invented gun powder.
(iv) According to traditions Mencius was the founder of Taoism.
- (i) is correct
- (ii) is correct
- (iii) is correct
- (iii) and (iv) are correct
Ans : c) (iii) is correct
8. What is the correct chronological order of four civilisations of Mesopotamia?
- Sumerians – Assyrians – Akkadians – Babylonians
- Babylonians – Sumerians – Assyrians – Akkadians
- Sumerians – Akkadians – Babylonians – Assyrians
- Babylonians – Assyrians – Akkadians – Sumerians Ans: c)
Ans : c) Sumerians – Akkadians – Babylonians – Assyrians
9. Assertion (A) : Assyrians of Mesopotamian civilisation were contemporaries of Indus civilisation.
Reason (R) : The Documents of an Assyrian ruler refer to the ships from Meluha.
- A and R are correct and A explains R
- A and R are correct but A doesn’t explain R
- A is incorrect but R is correct
- Both A and R are incorrect
Ans : a) A and R are correct and A explains R
II. Fill in the blanks
1. ………… is a massive lime stone image of a lion with a human head.
Ans : Great Sphinx of Giza
2. The early form of writing of the Egyptians is known as …………
Ans : Hieroglyphic
3. ………… specifies the Laws related to various crimes in ancient Babylonia.
Ans : Hammurabi’s Code
4. ………… was the master archive keeper of Chou state, according to traditions.
Ans : Lao Tze
5. The ………… figurines and paintings on the pottery from the sites suggest the artistic skills of the Harappans.
Ans : Terracotta
III. Find out the correct statement
1. a) The Great Bath at Harappa is well built with several adjacent rooms.
b) The cuneiform inscriptions relate to the epic of Gilgamesh.
c) The terracotta figurines and dancing girl made of copper suggest the artistic skills of Egyptians.
d) The Mesopotamians devised a solar calendar system. (F)
Ans: b) is the correct statements
2. a) Amon was considered the king of god in ancient Egypt.
b) The fortified Harappan city had the temples.
c) The great sphinx is a pyramid shaped monument found in ancient Mesopotamia.
d) The invention of the potter’s wheel is credited to the Egyptians.
Ans : a) is the correct statement
IV. Match the following
|1. Pharaoh||A kind of grass|
|2. Papyrus||The oldest written story of Earth|
|3. Great Law maker||Mohenjo-Daro|
|5. The Great Bath||The Egyptian king|
Ans : 1 – E, 2 – A, 3 – D, 4 – B, 5 – C
V. Answer the following briefly
1. The Egyptians excelled in art and architecture. Illustrate.
- The Pyramids are massive monuments built by the Egyptians as tombs of mourning to the Pharaohs.
- These monuments display the engineering, architectural and human resource management skills of the Egyptians.
- The Great Sphinx of Giza is a massive limestone image of a lion with a human head.
- Numerous sculptures, paintings and carvings attest to the artistic skills of Egyptians.
2. State the salient features of the Ziggurats.
- Ziggurats were the temples of Sumerians situated at the centre of Sumerian cities.
- They were pyramid shaped monuments found in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
- They were constructed on a platform with staircases leading to the top.
- Around this temple were ceremonial courtyards, shrines, burial chamber for the priests and priestesses along with workshop, granaries, storehouses and administrative buildings.
3. Hammurabi code is an important legal document. Explain.
Hammurabi was the greatest of the Babylonian rulers. His Code of Law is the first written code of laws in history. It is carved on a stone which portrays Hammurabi as receiving the code from the sun god – Shamash.
- It has 282 provisions specifying cases related to family rights, trade, slavery, taxes and wages.
- It was a compilation of old laws based on the retributive principles.
- The ‘eye for eye’ and ‘tooth for tooth’ form of justice is used in Hammurabi Code.
4. Write a note on the Great Wall of China.
- The Great Wall of China was constructed to protect the empire from the invading nomadic people.
- Shi Huangdi, the first Emperor of Chin dynasty constructed the Great Wall.
- It ran for over 20,000 km covering the hill and plains from the border of Korea in the East to the Ordos Desert in the West.
VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption
1. Early Civilizations:
a) What is meant by civilization?
Civilization means an advanced and organised way of life.
b) Name the important early civilizations.
The Egyptians, Mesopotamian, the Chinese and the Indus are the important early civilizations.
c) What supported the livelihood of a large number of people?
The surplus food production by the farmers supported the livelihood of a large number of people.
d) What happened when civilization began to take shape?
Huge buildings were built, the art of writing developed and science and technology contributed to the betterment of the society.
2. Features of Egyptian civilisation:
a) Who built the Pyramids and why?
Egyptians built the Pyramids. It was built as tombs of mourning to the Pharaohs.
b) Who were Pharaohs and Viziers?
- Egyptian kings were called as Pharaohs.
- Viziers were the high officials who administered territories under the direction of the Pharaohs.
c) What is the Pyramid and why was it built?
- It is a massive monument built as tombs of Pharaohs.
- It was built to mourn the Pharaohs
d) What is the process of mummification?
- The preservation of dead bodies by using Natron salt, a combination of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate is called mummification.
- After 40 days, when the salt observed all the moisture, the body was filled with saw dust wrapped with strips of linen cloth and covered with a fabric.
VII. Answer the following in Detail
1. Define the terms of Hieroglyphics and Cuneiform with their main features.
- Egyptians are well known for their writing system.
- They used the leaves of a plant called ‘Papyrus’ for writing.
- Their writing system is known as Hieroglyphic.
- Hieroglyphic was used in the inscriptions, seals and other objects.
- At present, this inscription is in the British Museum, London.
- Cuneiform is the Sumerian writing system.
- The shape of the letters is in the form wedge and hence, it is called Cuneiform.
- In the later part of fourth millennium BCE, this writing system emerged in Sumeria.
- It is one of the earliest scripts of the world. The Epic of Gilgamesh was written in this script.
- They used this script for commercial transactions and writing letters and stories.
2. To What extent is the Chinese influence reflected in the fields of philosophy and literature.
Chinese poets and philosophers contributed a lot to the development of Chinese Civilization. Lao Tze, Confucius, Mencius, Mo Ti and Tao Chien were notable poets and philosophers of China.They tried to remove the social evils and disparities from the society.
- Lao Tze ( 604-521 BCE) was the master archive keeper of Chou state. He was the founder of Taoism. He argued that desire is the root cause of all evils.
- Confucius (551 50 497 BCE) was famous among the Chinese philosophers. He was a political reformer. He insisted on cultivation of one’s own personal life. He said, “ If personal life is cultivation, family life is regulated and once family life is regulated, national life is regulated”.
- Mencius (372-289 BCE) was another well known Chinese Philosopher. He travelled
throughout China and offered his counsel to the rulers.
- A number of literary works were emerged in china.
- Sun Tzu, a military strategist wrote the work called ‘Art of War’.
- The ‘Spring and Autumn Annals, is the official chronicle of the state at that time.
- The Yellow Emperor’s ‘Canon of Medicine’ is considered China’s earliest written book on medicine. It was codified during the time of Han dynasty.