Science : Chapter 21 : Nutrition and Health
I. Choose the best answer
1. The nutrient required in trace amounts to accomplish various body functions is _______________
Ans : Vitamin
2. The physician who discovered that scurvy can be cured by ingestion of citrus fruits is _______________
- James Lind
- Louis Pasteur
- Charles Darwin
- Isaac Newton
Ans : James Lind
3. The sprouting of onion and potatoes can be delayed by the process of _______________
Ans : Irradiation
4. Food and Adulteration Act was enacted by Government of India in the year _______________
Ans : 1954
5. An internal factor responsible for spoilage of food is _______________
- Wax coating
- Contaminated utensils
- Moisture content in food
- Synthetic preservatives
Ans : Moisture content in food
II. Fill in the blanks
1. Deficiency diseases can be prevented by taking _______________ diet.
Ans : balanced
2. Te process of afecting the natural composition and the quality of food substance is known as _______________
Ans : Adulteration
3. Vitamin D is called as _______________ vitamin as it can be synthesised by the body from the rays of the sun.
Ans : Sunshine
4. Dehydration is based on the principle of removal of _______________.
Ans : water / moisture
5. Do not purchase food beyond the date of _______________
Ans : expiry
6. AGMARK is used to certify ______________ and _______________ products in India.
Ans : Agriculture and live stock
III. Mention whether the following statements are true or false. If false, give the correct statements
1. Iron is required for the proper functioning of Thyroid gland. ( False )
Ans : For the functioning of thyroid hormone, Iodine is required.
2. Vitamins are required in large quantities for normal functioning of the body. ( False )
Ans : Vitamins are viral nutrients, required in minute amounts to perform special functions, for normal functioning of the body.
3. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin. ( True )
4. Lack of adequate fats in diet may result in low body weight. ( True )
5. ISI mark is mandatory to certify agricultural products. ( False )
Ans : It is meant to certify industrial products like electrical appliances like switches, wiring cables, water heater etc. Agmark is mandatory to certify Agricultural products.
IV. Match the following
|1. Calcium||Muscular fatigue|
|5. Iodine||Muscular cramps|
Ans : 1 – C, 2 – E, 3 – A, 4 – B, 5 – D
V. Fill in the blanks with suitable answers
|Vitamin||Rich Source||Deficiency Diseases|
|Ascorbic acid||Citrus fruits||Scurvy|
|Thiamine||Whole grains||Beri beri|
VI. Unscramble the words in the brackets to complete the sentences.
Salting is a process involving addition of Salt (aslt) removes the Moisture (oitmsuer) content in the food (dofo) by the process of osmosis (sosisom) and prevents the growth of bacteria (artcaeib).
VII. Give abbreviations for the following food standards:
|1. ISI||Indian Standards Institution|
|2. FPO||Fruit Process Order|
|3. AGMARK||Agricultural Marking|
|4. FCI||Food Corporation of India|
|5. FSSAI||Food Safety and Standard Authority of India|
VIII. Assertion and Reason
Direction: In the following question a statement of a Assertion is given and a corresponding state of a Reason is given just below it. Of the statements given below, mark the correct answer as:
- If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
- If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
- If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
- If both Assertion and Reason is false.
1. Assertion : Haemoglobin contains iron.
Reason : Iron deficiency leads to anaemia.
Ans : If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
2. Assertion : AGMARK is a quality control agency.
Reason : ISI is a symbol of quality.
Ans : If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
IX. Very short answers
1. Differentiate a) Kwashiorkar from Marasmus
|1 Protein deficiency affecting children between 1-5 years.||Protein deficiency affecting infants below the age of one year|
|2. Symptoms: face and feet swelling, belly enlarged||Weight loss and body muscle waste severe diarrhea.|
|3 Children whose diet mainly consists of carbohydrates but poor in protein.||Children whose diet is poor in carbohydrates, fats and proteins.|
b) Macronutrients from Micronutrients
|Macro nutrients||Micro nutrients|
|1. They are needed in greater concentration.||They are needed in slightly lower concentration.|
|2. Eg. Calcium magnesium, Potassium and phosphorus.||Eg. Iron, copper, Zinc and Manganese.|
2. Give reasons why salt us used as a preservative in food.
- Addition of salt removes the moisture content in the food by osmosis.
- It prevents the growth of bacteria and reduces the activity of microbial enzymes.
3. What is an adulterant?
It is the substance when added or subtracted from food, can change the natural composition and quality of food substance.
4. A doctor advises an adolescent girl who is suffering from anaemia to include more of leafy
vegetables and dates in her diet. Why so?
- Anaemia occur due to deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood.
- Iron is essential for the formation of haemoglobin.
- Green leafy vegetables & dates are rich in iron. So by taking green leafy vegetables & dates she can solve her (anaemic problem)
5. Name any two naturally occurring toxic substances in food.
- Prussic acid in seeds of apple
- Marine toxins (like mercury) in fish food.
- toxins in toxic mushrooms.
6. What factors are required for the absorption of vitamin D from the food or by the body?
- Calcium and vitamin D together essential for bone health.
- Human skin can synthesis vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
- When sun rays fall on the skin dehydro-cholesterol is converted into vitamin D. Hence vitamin D is known as sunshine vitamin.
X. Short answers
1. Write any one function of the following minerals.
- Calcium – constitution of bone
- Sodium – maintains acid base
- Iron – Important component of haemoglobin
- Iodine – formation of thyroid hormone.
2. Explain any two methods of food preservation.
a. Drying (Dehydration)
By sun drying water content can be removed. Eg. cereals, fish
- Drying – inhibit the growth of micro organism such as bacteria, moulds.
- Vacuum drying – milk and cheese powder.
- Hot air drying – grapes dry fruits etc.
Food like meat and fish are exposed to smoke, and smoking preserves the food.
3. Sanjana wants to buy jam bottle in a grocery shop. What are the things she should observe on the label before purchasing it.
She must check-Agmark certification on the label to check food safety. She should also look for expiry date to avoid using expired products.
4. Give one reason for the following statements.
a) Salt is added as preservative in pickles.
To remove moisture To prevent growth of bacteria.
b) We should not eat food items beyond the expiry date.
Because after expiry it gets denatured and sometimes become toxin. It would have got spoilt and could cause food poisoning.
c) Deficiency of calcium in diet leads to poor skeletal growth.
Calcium is important for constitution of bone. So deficiency causes poor skeletal growth.
5. What are the effects of consuming adulterated food?
- Consumption of adulterated food may lead to serious health issues like fever, diarrhea, nausea vomiting etc.
- Immunity is reduced.
- In serve case even kidney and liver failure colon cancer or even birth defects may occur in the foetus.
XI. Detail answer
|Vitamin A (Retinol)||Carrot, Papaya, Leafy vegetables, fish, liver oil, egg yolk, liver, dairy products||Xerophthalmia Nyctalopia (Night blindness)||Dryness of cornea Unable to see in the night (dim light) Scaly skin|
|Vitamin D (Calciferol)||Egg, liver, dairy products, fish, synthesized by the skin in sunlight||Rickets (in children)||Bow legs, defective ribs, development of pigeon|
|Vitamin E (Tocopherol)||Whole wheat, meat, vegetable oil, milk||Sterility in rats, Reproductive abnormalities||Sterility|
|Vitamin K (Derivative of Quinone)||Leafy vegetables, soya beans, milk||Blood clotting is prevented||Excessive bleeding due to delayed blood clotting|
2. Explain the role of food control agencies in India.
|ISI (Indian Standards Institution) known as Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)||Certifies industrial products like electrical appliances like switches, wiring cables, water heater, electric motor, kitchen appliances etc.|
|AGMARK (Agricultural Marking)||Certifies agricultural and livestock products like cereals, essential oils, pulses, honey, butter etc|
|FPO (Fruit Process Order)||Certifies the fruit products like juices, jams, sauce, canned fruits and vegetables, pickles etc.,|
|Food Safety and Standard Authority of India||Responsible for protecting and promoting the public health through regulation and supervision of food safety.|