Social Science : Geography : Chapter 4 : Migration and Urbanisation
I. Choose the correct answer
1. People move from ________ to ________ mainly in search of better jobs.
- Rural to Urban
- Urban to Rural
- Hills to plains
- Plains to hills
Ans : Rural to Urban
2. A person moves from his own country to another country is known as ________.
- Asylum seeker
Ans : Emigrant
3. The migration in search of fertile agricultural land is ________ migration
- Rural to Rural
- Rural to Urban
- Urban to Rural
- Urban to Urban
Ans : Rural to Rural
4. War is one of the ________ causes of human migration.
Ans : Political
5. The main reason for the development of urbanisation in pre-historic period was ________.
- Production of food grains
- Domestication of cattle
Ans : Production of food grains
II. Fill in the Blanks.
1. Urbanisation is determined by ________ number of factors.
Ans : three
2. ________ is the major push factor operating in rural areas.
Ans : Unemployment
3. ________ Metropolitan city in India has the second highest urban population in the world.
Ans : Delhi
4. The movement of a person based on his free will and desire to live in a better place is called ________ migration.
Ans : Voluntary
5. In modern time urban growth was accelerated by the development of ________.
Ans : Industries
III Match the following.
|1. Emigration||in migration|
|2. Immigration||out migration|
|3. Pull factor||employment|
|4. Push factor||socio-cultural migration|
|5. Marriage||employment opportunity|
Ans : 1 – B, 2 – A, 3 – C, 4 – E, 5 – D
IV. State True or False
1. Slums are generally found in cities.
Ans : False
2. Mass migration is absent in the modern period.
Ans : True
3. The process of Urbanisation has a short history.
Ans : False
4. Cities and towns are the major polluters of environment.
Ans : True
5. Transhumance is also referred as seasonal migration.
Ans : True
V. Consider the following statements and tick the appropriate answer
Statement (A) : Urbanisation is mainly due to the movement of people from rural to cities.
Reason (R) : Rural to Urban migration is not a predominant one.
- A is correct but R is incorrect
- Both A and R are incorrect
- Both A and R are correct
- A is incorrect and R is correct
Ans : A is correct but R is incorrect
VI. Answer the following in one or two sentences
1. Defne “Migration”.
Migration is defined as the permanent or semi permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people over a significant distance. So, the term migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another
2. What are the causes of rural to urban migration?
Causes of rural to urban migration are:
- In search of employment
- In search of good education and
- For recreation facilities.
3. State the causes of the ecological or natural migration.
The causes of the ecological or natural migration
- Volcanic eruption
- Drought etc.
These events force the people to leave their native places and settle in the new areas.
4. Name any two pull factors of migration.
Pull factor for migration are:
- Favourable climate and
- Potential for employment.
5. What is Urbanisation?
Urbanisation refers to the process in which there is an increase in the proportion of population living in towns and cities.
6. List out any four most populous cities in the world.
|Name of the cities||Population in million|
|1. Tokyo (Japan)||37|
|2. Delhi (India)||29|
|3. Shanghai (China)||26|
|4. Mexico City (Mexico)||22|
|5. Sao Paulo (Brazil)||22|
VII. Answer the following
1. What are the diferent types of migration? Explain.
Migration can be classified in several ways. It is usually categorized as follows:
Based on the movement associated with administrative limits :
Internal migration :
The movement of people within a country is known as internal migration. Further, the internal migration is classified into four categories on the basis of the place of origin and destination of migrants.
- Rural to Urban Migration is the movement of population from rural areas to growing towns and cities mainly in search of employment, education and recreation facilities.
- Urban to Urban Migration is the migration between one urban centre to the other like in search of higher salaries.
- Rural to Rural Migration is driven by fertile land for cultivation and other sociological factors like Marriage etc.
- Urban to Rural Migration is the movement from urban centres to rural areas to get rid-off the urban problems and returning to native places after retirement from jobs.
International migration :
Migration that occurs across the national boundaries are known as international migration.
Based on the willingness of the migrants for migration :
- Voluntary migration: If the migration takes place on person’s free will, initiative and desire to live in a better place and to improve their financial status, the migration is said to be voluntary.
- Involuntary or forced migration: If the migration takes place against the will of migrants, the migration is termed as involuntary migration.
Based on the duration of stay of migrants in the place of destination :
Short term migration:
In this kind of migration, the migrants stay outside only for a short duration before returning to the place of origin. The duration may be from a few days to few months.
Long term migration:
It is a kind of migration in which the migrants stay outside at least for a few years.
In this type of migration usually a group of people migrates from their native places during a particular season and return after end of that season.
2. Explain in detail about the various causes of migration?
The various causes which are responsible for human migration is categorized under five groups as follows.
Ecological or Natural Causes of Migration :
- The causes operate under this category are natural ones.
- They include volcanic eruption, earthquake, flood, drought etc.
- These events force the people to leave their native places and settle in the new areas.
- The conditions like the availability of water resources, areas free from hazards, pollution etc., attract the migrants.
Economic causes of Migration :
- Economy is one of the most important causes of human migration from one area to another.
- Various economic causes determine the level and direction of migration.
- The availability of fertile agricultural land, employment opportunities, development of technology etc., are some of the economic causes that attract the migration.
- The mass poverty and unemployment force the people to move out from their native places to the places where the better employment opportunities are available.
Socio-cultural causes of Migration :
Socio-cultural causes also play some roles in the process of migration. Migration of women after marriage and migration associated with pilgrimage are based on the socio-cultural customs.
Demographic causes of Migration :
- In demographic sense, the population composition like age and sex, over population and under population are the major causes of migration.
- Adults are more migratory than any other age-groups. Women mostly migrate after their marriage.
Political causes of Migration :
- Various political causes like colonization, wars, government policies etc. have always been playing important role in human migration from time to time.
- Wars have been one of the significant causes of migration since ancient time.
3. Discuss the problems of urbanisation.
Housing and Slums:
- There is a lack of space for housing and a marked reduction in the quality of housing in the urban areas due to increase in population.
- This problem may increase in the years to come. Rapid rate of urbanisation results in the development of slums.
- Over-crowding leads to unhealthy environment in the urban areas.
- It is also the cause of many diseases and riots.
Water supply, Drainage and Sanitation:
- No city has round the clock water supply in the world.
- Drainage situation is equally bad.
- The removal of garbage is a Himalayan task for urban local bodies.
Transportation and Traffic:
- Absence of planned and adequate arrangements for traffic and transport is another problem in urban centres.
- The increasing number of two wheelers and cars make the traffic problem worse. They cause air pollution as well.
- Towns and cities are the major polluters of environment.
- Industries in and around the urban centres pollute the atmosphere with smoke, toxic gases and effluents.