Social Science : History : Chapter 4 : The World after World War II
I. Choose the Correct Answer:
1. Which American President followed the policy of containment of Communism?.
- Woodrow Wilson
- Theodore Roosevelt
- Franklin Roosevelt
Ans : Truman
2. When was People’s Political Consultative Conference held in China?
- September 1959
- September 1948
- September 1954
- September 1949
Ans : September 1949
3. The United States and European allies formed to resist any Soviet aggression in Europe.
- Warsaw Pact
Ans : NATO
4. Who became the Chairman of the PLO’s Executive Committee in 1969?
- Hafez al-Assad
- Yasser Arafat
- Saddam Hussein
Ans : Yasser Arafat
5. When was North and South Vietnam united?
Ans : 1976
6. When was the Warsaw Pact dissolved?
Ans : 1991
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. ________ was known as the “Father of modern China”.
Ans : Dr. Sun Yat Sen
2. In 1918, the society for the study of Marxism was formed in ________ University.
Ans : Peking
3. After the death of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the leader of the Kuomintang party was ________.
Ans : Chiang Kai Sheik
4. ________ treaty is open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in the region.
Ans : CENTO
5. The treaty of ________ provided for mandates in Turkish -Arab Empire.
Ans : Versailles.
6. Germany joined the NATO in ________.
Ans : 1955
7. ________ was the Headquarters of the Council of Europe.
Ans : Strasbourg
8. ________ treaty signed on February 7, 1992 created the European Union.
Ans : Maastricht
III. Choose the Correct Statement
1. i) In China (1898) the young emperor, under the influence of the educated minority, initiated a series of reforms known as the 100 days of reforms.
ii) The Kuomintang Party represented the interests of the workers and peasants.
iii) Yuan Shih-Kai had lost prestige in the eyes of Nationalists, when he agreed to the demand of Japan to have economic control of Manchuria and Shantung.
iv) Soviet Union refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China for more than two decades.
- (i) and (ii) are correct
- (ii) and (iii) are correct
- (i) and (iii) are correct
- (i) and (iv) are correct
Ans : (i) and (iii) are correct
2. i) In 1948, the Soviets had established left wing government in the countries of Eastern Europe that had been liberated by the Soviet Army.
ii) The chief objective of NATO was to preserve peace and security in the North Atlantic region.
iii) The member countries of SEATO were committed to prevent democracy from gaining ground in the region.
iv) Britain used the atomic bomb against Japan to convey its destructive capability to the USSR.
- (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct
- (i) and (ii) are correct
- (iii) and (iv) are correct
- (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct
Ans : (i) and (ii) are correct
3. Assertion (A) : America’s Marshall Plan was for reconstruction of the war-ravaged
Reason (R) : The US conceived the Marshal Plan to bring the countries in the Western Europe under its influence.
- Both (A) and (R) are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A
- Both (A) and (R) are wrong
- Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
- (A) is wrong and (R) is correct
Ans : Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
IV. Match the following:
|1. Dr. Sun Yat-Sen||South Vietnam|
|2. Syngman Rhee||Kuomintung|
|3. Anwar Sadat||South Korea|
|4. Ho-Chi Minh||Egypt|
|5. Ngo Dinh Diem||North Vietnam|
Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – D, 4 – E, 5 – A
V. Answer briefly
1. Write any three causes for the Chinese Revolution of 1911.
- The disintegration of the Manchu dynasty began with the death of the Dowager-Empress in 1908. The new emperor was two-years old and the provincial governors began to assert their independence.
- In October 1911 the local army mutinied and the revolt spread.
- Provincial governors removed the Manchu garrisons and proclaimed their independence.
2. Write a note on Mao’s Long March.
- As Chiang Kai-sheik had built a circle of fortified posts around the communist positions, Mao wanted to move out of Hunan for safer territory.
- By 1933 Mao had gained full control of the Chinese Communist party.
- In 1934, the Communist army of about 100,000 set out on the Long March.
- This march has become legendary. The marches were continually harassed by Kuomintang forces, by local War lords and by unfriendly tribesmen.
- Out of 1,00,000, only 20,000 finally reached Sheni after crossing 6,000 miles.
3. What do you know of Baghdad Pact?
- In 1955 Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran signed a pact known as Baghdad Pact.
- In 1958 the United States joined the organization and thereafter it came to be known as the Central Treaty Organization.
- This treaty was open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in the region. CENTO was dissolved in 1979.
4. What was Marshall Plan?
- The US Conceived the Marshall Plan to bring the countries in the western Europe under its influence.
- The plan sought to help the countries of Europe with American dollars to facilitate their early recovery from the destruction caused by the Second World War.
5. Write a note on Third World Countries.
- The capitalist countries led by the U.S. were politically designated as the First World.
- The Communist States led by the Soviet Union came to be known as the Second world.
- States outside these two were called Third World.
- When the term was originally introduced, the Third World principally consisted of the developing world, the former colonies of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
- With the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, the term Third World has lost its relevance.
6. How was the Cuban missile crisis defused?
- In April 1961, while landing an army of Cuban exiles on the island of Bay of Pigs, the US bombed Cuban airfields with the objective of overthrowing Castro’s regime.
- US Warships surrounded Cuba.
- The Kennedy government had received intelligence that the USSR was secretly installing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
- Finally, the Soviet President Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles and thus the Missile Crisis was defused.
VI. Answer in detail
1. Estimate the role of Mao TseTung in making China a communist country.
- After the death of Sun Yat-Sen, Chiang Kai Shek became the leader of the Kuomintang.
- The communist party was under Mao Tse Tung and Chou En Lai.
- The communists increased their influence among the workers and peasants and recruited them in the army.
- The Kuomintang represented the interests of the landlords and capitalists.
- When the relationship between Kuomintang and Communist party broke a few hundred communists led by Mao retreated into the wild mountains. There they stayed for seven years.
- Kuomintang was unable to enter the mountains as Chiang Kai Shek had other problems.
- In 1934, the communist army of about 100,000 set out on a Long March. In 1935 only 20,000 reached northern Sheni after crossing 6,000 miles.
- By 1937, Mao had become the leader of over 10 million people of China.
- Mao organised workers and peasants and established the base for eventual communists take over of China.
- With the surrender of the Japanese in 1945, Both the Kuomintang and the communist tried to capture power. In this race, Kuomintang was successful because of the support given by the U.S.A.
- However Mao was keen on getting the support of the middle class.
- He declared that the communists wanted the rule of the people but not of the dictator.
- Mao continued the use of guerrilla tactics.
- Cities fell one by one and Chiang Kai Shek’s army began to disintegrate quickly.
- In the summer of 1948, communist control was established in most parts of China.
- In 1949, the People’s Republic of China emerged under the leadership of Mao Tse Tung.
3. Narrate the history of transformation of Council of Europe into an European Union.
- One of the momentous decisions taken in the post-War II era was to integrate the states of Western Europe. In doing so the Europeans wanted
- to prevent further European Wars by ending the rivalry between France and Germany.
- to create a united Europe to resist any threat from Soviet Russia.
- to form a third force in the world to counter-balance the strength of the US and USSR.
- to make full use of the economic and military resources of Europe by organizing them on a continental scale.
Council of Europe:
- In May 1949 ten countries met in London and signed to form a Council of Europe.
- The Council of Europe was established with its headquarters at Strasbourg.
European Coal and Steel Community:
Since the Council of Europe had no real power, the European Defence Community (EDC) and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) were established.
European Economic Community:
Six countries belonging to ECSC signed the Treaty of Rome and established the European Economic Community (EEC).
The Single European Act:
The Single European Act came into force on July 1, 1987.
- The Maastricht Treaty was signed on February 7, 1992. It created the European Union.
- Today the European Union has 28 member states, and functions from its headquarters at Brussels, Belgium. In 2017, Britain voted to exit the EU.