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Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Books English Medium Nationalism Gandhian Phase

Social Science : History : Chapter 8 : Nationalism: Gandhian Phase

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. Who was arrested during the anti-Rowlatt protests in Amritsar?

  1. Motilal Nehru
  2. Saifuddin Kitchlew
  3. Mohamed Ali
  4. Raj Kumar Shukla

Ans : Saifuddin Kitchlew

2. In which session of the Indian National Congress was Non-Cooperation approved?

  1. Bombay
  2. Madras
  3. Calcutta
  4. Nagpur

Ans : Calcutta

3. Which among the following was declared as ‘Independence Day’?

  1. 26th January 1930
  2. 26th December 1929
  3. 16th June 1946
  4. 15th January 1947

Ans : 26th January 1930

4. When was the first Forest Act enacted?

a) 1858
b) 1911
c) 1865
d) 1936

Ans : 1865

5. On 8 January 1933 which day was observed ________.

  1. Temple Entry Day
  2. Day of Deliverance
  3. Direct Action Day
  4. Independence Day

Ans : Temple Entry Day

6. Which Act introduced Provincial Autonomy?

  1. 1858 Act
  2. Indian Councils Act, 1909
  3. Government of India Act, 1919
  4. Government of India Act, 1935

Ans : Government of India Act, 1935

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Gandhi regarded ________ as his political guru.

Ans : Gopala Krishna Gokhale.

2. Khilafat Movement was led by ________.

Ans : Mualana Mohamed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.

3. Government of India Act 1919 introduced ________ in the provinces.

Ans : Dyarchy.
4. The Civil Disobedience Movement in North West Frontier Province was led by ________.

Ans : Khan Abdul Ghaffer Khan.

5. Ramsay Macdonald announced ________ which provided separate electorates to the minorities and the depressed classes.

Ans : Communal Award.

6. ________ established Congress Radio underground during the Quit India Movement.

Ans : Usha Mehta.

III. Choose the Correct Statement

1. (i) The Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent in 1920.

(ii) M. Singaravelar was tried in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case.

(iii) The Congress Socialist Party was formed by Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev and Mino Masani.

(iv) The Socialists did not participate in the Quit India Movement.

  1. (i) and (ii) are correct
  2. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  3. (iv) is correct
  4. (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct

Ans : i), ii) and iii) are correct

2. Assertion : The Congress attended the First Round Table Conference.

Reason : Gandhi-Irwin Pact enabled the Congress to attend the Second Round Table Conference.

  1. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation
  2. A is correct but R is wrong
  3. A is wrong but R is correct
  4. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation

Ans: c) (A) is wrong but (R) is right

3. Assertion : The Congress Ministries resigned in 1939.

Reason : The Colonial government of India entered the war without consulting the elected Congress ministries.

  1. Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation
  2. A is correct but R is wrong
  3. Both A and R are wrong
  4. Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation

Ans : Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the right explanation

IV. Match the following:

1. Rowlatt ActSurrender of titles
2. Non Cooperation MovementDyarchy
3. Government of India Act, 1919M.N. Roy
4. Communist Party of IndiaDirect Action Day
5. 16th August 1946Black Act

Ans: 1 – E, 2 – A, 3 – B, 4 -C, 5 – D

V. Answer briefly:

1. Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

  • In 1919, the anti-Rowlatt protest was intense in Punjab especially in Amritsar and Labore.
  • The two prominent leaders of Punjab Dr.Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr.Satyapal were arrested in Amritsar.
  • Against their arrest, on 13 April 1919, a public meeting was arranged at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar.
  • General Reginald Dyer surrounded the place with his troops and opened fire on people without any warning.
  • According to official estimates, 379 were killed and more than thousand injured.

2. Write a note on the Khilafat Movement.

  • In the First World War, Turkey fought against England.
  • At the end of war, harsh treatment was given to Turkey.
  • The Caliph of Turkey who was considered the head of the Muslims of the world was removed from the power.
  • In India, a movement was started his support called the Khilafat Movement.
  • It was led by the Ali brothers – Maulana Mohamed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.
  • The movement aimed to restore the prestige and power of the Caliphate.

3. Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement?

  • Gandhi introduced the Non Cooperation Movement in 1920 against the Jallianwal Bagh tragedy and Rowlatt Act.
  • This movement greatly enhanced Gandhi’s reputation as a national leader.
  • On 5th Feb. 1922, a procession of the nationalist at Chauri chaura in Uttar Pradesh provoked as violent one.
  • The police attacked the nationalists. So, the people burnt the police station along with 22 policemen.
  • Gandhi immediately withdrew the movement when it turned as violent.

4. Why was Simon Commission boycotted?

  • In 1927, the British Government announced the appointment of Simon Commission.
  • It was composed of seven members headed by Sir John Simon.
  • It was an all white commission with no Indian member.
  • Indians were angered that they had been denied the right to decide their won constitution.
  • All sections of the India including Congress and the Muslim League boycotted the Commission.

5. What is Poorna Swaraj?

  • After the failure of the Simon Commission, majority of the leaders wanted to get complete independence from the British.
  • The Lahore Congress session presided by Jawaharlal Nehru was held in Dec. 1929.
  • In that session, Poorna Swaraj or Complete independence was declared as the goal of Congress.
  • A pledge was taken all over the country to attain Poorna Swaraj through Civil Disobedience.

6. Write a note on Bhagat Singh.

  • Bhagat Singh was one of the comrades who reorganised the Hindustan Republic Army (HRA) in Punjab.
  • Influenced by the Socialist, it was renamed as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association in 1928.
  • In 1929, Bhagat Singh along with B.K.Dutta threw a smoke bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly.
  • They also threw pamphlets and shouted ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ and ‘Long live the Proletariat’.
  • He was arrested and sentenced to death. His daring and courage fired the imagination of the youth across India.

7. What are the terms of the Poona Pact?

The agreement that was between Gandhi and Ambedkar in 1932 was known as Poona Pact. Its main terms were

  • The principle of separate electorates was abandoned. Instead, the principle of joint electorate was accepted with reservation of seats for the depressed classes.
  • Reserved seats for the depressed classes were increased from 71 to 147. In the Central Legislature 18 percent of the seats were reserved

VI. Answer the following in detail:

1. Examine the factors that led to the transformation of Gandhi into a mass leader.

Satyagraha in South Africa :

  • Indians in the Transvaal had to pay a poll tax £.3, could not own land except in areas marked for them, and could not move outdoors after 9 pm without a permit.
  • Gandhi launched a struggle against such unjust laws.
  • He experimented with it for fighting the issues of immigration and racial discrimination.
  • Meetings were held and registration offices of immigrants were picketed.
  • Even when the police let loose violence no resistance was offered by the satyagrahis.
  • Finally by the Smuts-Gandhi Agreement the poll tax on indentured labourers was abolished.

Gandhi’s Early Satyagraha in India :

  • Gandhi regarded Gopal Krishna Gokhale, whom he had met on previous visits to India, as his political guru.
  • On his advice Gandhi travelled the length and breadth of the country before plunging into politics.
  • It is on one of these journeys through Tamil Nadu that Gandhi decided to discard his following robes and wear a simple dhoti.

Champaran Satyagraha :

  • In Champaran in Bihar the tinkathia system was practiced. Under this exploitative system the peasants were forced by the European planters to cultivate indigo on three-twentieths of their land holdings.
  • Gandhi went of Champaran. He tried to free the peasants from the exploitation of the European planters.
  • He led the Champaran Satyagraha.
  • The tinkathia system was abolished. The peasants were relieved from the oppression of European planters.
  • Ahmedabad mill strike (1918) and the Kheda Satyagraha (1918) helped Gandhi establish himself as a leader of mass struggle.

2. Critically examine the Civil Disobedience Movement as the typical example of Gandhian movement.

Lahore Congress :

  • The Congress Session was held in Lahore in December 1929 with Jawaharlal Nehru as the president. Poorna Swaraj was declared as the goal.
  • It was also decided to boycott the Round Table conference and launch a Civil Disobedience Movement.

Civil Disobedience Movement :

  • A charter of demands was presented to the Viceroy Lord Irwin with an ultimatum to comply by 31 January 1930. When the Viceroy did not respond Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience movement.

Salt Satyagraha Movement :

  • The inclusion of abolition of Salt tax was a brilliant tactical decision.
  • Salt was an issue which affected every section of the society.
  • It transformed Civil Disobedience Movement into a mass movement drawing all sections of the population including women in the streets.
  • On 12 March 1930 Gandhi set out from Sabarmati Ashram with 78 of its immates and reached Dandi on 5 April, 1930.
  • The next morning he took a lump of salt breaking the salt law.
  • In Tamil Nadu C. Rajaji, led a similar salt march from Tiruchirappalli to Vedaranyam.
  • In the North West frontier province Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan led the movement.
  • Gandhi was arrested at midnight and sent to Yeravada jail.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and other leaders were swiftly arrested.
  • It was the biggest mass movement India had ever withnessed. But no violence was reported anywhere.

3. Discuss the reasons behind the partition of India.

  • The Khilafat committee meeting in Allahabad on 9 June 1920 adopted Gandhi’s non-violent, non-cooperation programme.
  • The 1920s saw a series of communal riots between the Hindus and the Muslims.
  • Hindu Mahasabha was gaining in popularity under Madan Mohan Malaviya and the Muslim League under the Ali brothers.
  • Serious efforts by Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah who at that time believed Swaraj was possible only with Hindu-Muslim unity, failed to stem the communal riots.
  • Jinnah proposed an amendment to the reservation of seats in the central legislature.
  • He demanded that one – third of the seats be reserved for Muslims.
  • He proposed a resolution which came to be known as Jinnah’s fourteen points. However it was also rejected.
  • Jinnah demanding separate state for Muslims revived the Muslim League in 1934.
  • He was one of the staunchest critics of the Congress Ministries. He declared the day when the congress ministries resigned as the “Day of Deliverance”.
  • By 1940 he demanded a separate state for the Muslims. He argued that in an independent India the Muslims would lose all political power to the Hindus.
  • The Hindu Mahasabha and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) took a pronounced anti – Muslim stance.
  • The British policy of divide and rule through measures such as Partition of Bengal, Communal Award, had encouraged the vested interests out to exploit the religious differences.
  • When the interim government was formed, only after some hesitation the Muslims joined it.
  • Hartals and demonstrations took place which soon turned into Hindu-Muslim conflict.
  • So partition of India became inevitable.
  • On the basis of the Mount batten Plan India was partitioned into two countries and given independence.

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