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Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Books English Medium India Location Relief and Drainage

Social Science : Geography : Chapter 1 : India – Location, Relief and Drainage

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. The north-south extent of India is

  1. 2,500 km
  2. 2,933 km
  3. 3,214 km
  4. 2,814 km

Ans : 3,214 km

2. ________ River is known as ‘Sorrow of Bihar’.

  1. Narmada
  2. Godavari
  3. Kosi
  4. Damodar

Ans : Kosi

3. A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as ________.

  1. Coast
  2. Island
  3. Peninsula
  4. Strait

Ans : Peninsula

4. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separates India from ________

  1. Goa
  2. West Bengal
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Maldives

Ans : Sri Lanka

5. The highest peak in South India is

  1. Ooty
  2. Kodaikanal
  3. Anaimudi
  4. Jindhagada

Ans : Anaimudi

6. ________ Plains are formed by the older alluviums.

  1. Bhabar
  2. Tarai
  3. Bhangar
  4. Khadar

Ans : Bhabar

7. Pulicat Lake is located between the states of

  1. West Bengal and Odisha
  2. Karnataka and Kerala
  3. Odisha and Andhra Pradesh
  4. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

Ans : Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

II. Match the following:

1. TsangpoTributary of River Ganga
2. YamunaHighest peak in India
3. New alluviumRiver Brahmaputra in Tibet
4. Mt. Godwin Southern part of East Austen (K2)Coastal Plain
5. Coromandel CoastKhadhar

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – A, 3 – E, 4 – B, 5 – D

IV. Give Reasons

1. Himalayas are called young fold mountains.

  • The Himalayas are called young fold mountains because they have been formed only a few millions ago.
  • And they were formed because of the folding of the earth’s crust due to tectonic activity.

2. North Indian rivers are perennial.

  • The North Indian rivers originate from the snow covered mountains of Himalayas. They get water from the melting of snow from the peaks and also from monsoons.

3. South Indian rivers are east flowing.

  • Most of the South Indian rivers are originates from the Western Ghats.
  • The elevation of the Western side is higher than the Eastern side.
  • So, the South Indian Rivers are East flowing rivers.

4. West flowing rivers do not form deltas

  • The West flowing rivers are originate from the Plateau region and flows towards Arabian Sea.
  • They pass through Western Ghats which lies close to the Western Coastal plain.
  • So, the West flowing rivers don’t form deltas

V. Distinguish between the following _

1. Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers.

The Himalayan RiversPeninsular rivers
1. Originate from Himalayas.Onginate from Western ghats.
2. Long and wide.Short and narrow.
3. Perennial in nature.Non-perennial in nature.
4. Unsuitable for hydro power generation.Suitable for hydro power generation.
5. Middle and lower courses are navigable.Not useful for navigation.

2. Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.

Western GhatsEastern Ghats
1. It forms the western edge of the Deccan plateau.It forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau.
2. It runs parallel to the Arabian sea coastIt runs parallel to the Bay of Bengal.
3. The northern part of this range is called as Sahyadris.It is also called as Poorvadri
4. It is a continuous range.It is not a continuous range.

3. Western Coastal Plains and Eastern Coastal Plains.

Western Coastal PlainsEastern Coastal Plains
1. Western coastal plains lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea.Eastern coastal plains lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal.
2. It extends from Rann of Kutch in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.It extends from Bengal m the north and Tamilnadu in the south.
3. The short swift rivers do not make any deltas on the coast.The large rivers make wide deltas on the eastern coastal plain.
4. Characterised by sand beaches sand dunes and lagoons.Formed by the alluvial fillings of the littoral zones by the east flowing rivers.
5. The northern part of this coast is called the Konkan coast and the southern part is called the Malabar coast.The northern part of this coast is called North cirears and the southern part is called Coromandel coast.

V. Answer in brief

1. Name the neighbouring countries of India.

Pakistan in the West, Afghanistan in the North-West, Nepal and Bhutan in the North and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the East are the neighbouring countries of India.

2. Give the importance of IST.

The longitudinal difference between Gujarat in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east is about 30°. So different places in India will have different local time and it will cause confusion. In order to avoid these confusion of time in different states, Indian standard time is calculated. The IST is 5.30 hrs ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

3. Write a short note on Deccan Plateau.

This physiographic division is the largest part of the plateau region of India. The shape of this plateau is roughly triangular.

One of the sides of this triangle is marked by the line joming Kanyakumari with Rajmahal Hills and this line passes through the Eastern Ghats. The second arm is marked by the Satpura Range, Mahadeo Hills, Maikal Range and the Rajmahal Hills.

The third arm is marked by the Western Ghats. The area of this Plateau is about 7 lakh square km and the height ranges from 500 to 1000 m above sea level. It slopes from west to east.

4, State the west flowing rivers of India.

  • Narmada
  • Tapti
  • Mahi
  • Sabarmathi

5. Write a brief note on the island group of Lakshadweep.

This is a small group of coral islands located off the westcoast of India. It covers an area of 32 sq. km. Kavaratti is its administrative capital. It is separated from the Maldive Islands by the Eight degree channel.

VI Answer in a paragraph

1. Explain the divisions of Northern Mountains and its importance to India.

Divisions of Northern Mountains

  1. The Trans Himalayas
  2. The Himalayas
  3. Eastern or Purvanchal Hills.

The Trans Himalayas

The Trans Himalayas lies to the north of great Himalayan range. It lies in Jammu and Kashmirand Tibetian plateau. The trans Himalayas are about 40 km in its eastern and western extermities andabout 225 km wide in its central part.

They contain the Tethys sediments. The rocks of this region contains fossils bearing marine sediments which are underlain by Tertiary granites. It has partly metamorphosed sediments and constitutes the core of the Himalayan axis.

The Himalayas

It constitutes the core part of northern mountains. It is an young fold mountain. It was formed by the movement of Angara land mass in the north and Gondwana land mass in the south.

Himalayas is the home of several high peaks. It holds the pride of having maximum number of highest peaks among any mountain range in the world. Out of 14 height peaks in this world Himalayas holds 9.

The main divisions of the Himalayas are the

  1. Greater Himalayas
  2. The Lesser Himalayas
  3. The Siwaliks.

The eastern or Purvanchal Hills

These are the eastern off short of Himalayas. It extended in the north eastern states of India. Most of these hills are located along the border of India and Mynamar while others are inside India.

Importance of Himalayas:

  • Himalayas blocks southwest monsoon winds and causes heavy rainfall to north India.
  • It forms a natural barrier to the subcontinent.
  • It is the source for many perennial rivers like Ganges, Brahmaputra, etc.
  • It is the paradise of tourists due to its natural richness.
  • Many hill stations and pilgrim centres like Amarnath, Kadarnath, Badrinath and Vaishnavi devi temples are situated here.
  • It provides raw materials for many forest based industries.
  • It prevents cold winds blowing from the central Asia and protects India from severe cold.
  • Himalayas are renowned for the rich bio – diversity.

2. Give an account on the major peninsular rivers of India.

  • The rivers in south India are called the Peninsular rivers.
  • Most of these rivers originate from the Western Ghats.
  • These- are seasonal rivers (non—perennial).
  • They have a large seasonal fluctuation in volume of water as they are solely fed by rain.
  • These rivers flow in valleys with steep gradients.
  • Based on the direction of flow, the peninsular rivers are divided into the West flowing and East flowing rivers.

East flowing rivers


  • The river Mahanadi originates near Sihawa in Raipur district of Chattisgarh and flows through Odisha.
  • Delta of Mahanadi is one of the largest deltas in India.


  • Godavari is the longest of the Peninsular rivers.
  • It flows through the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh and joins the Bay of Bengal.
  • It is also called Vridha Ganga.


  • The river Krishna originates from a spring at a place called Mahabaleshwar in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra.
  • It is the second longest Peninsular river.
  • It flows through Andhra Pradesh and joms the Bay of Bengal, at Hamasaladeevi.


  • The river Kaveri originates at Talakaveri, Kudagu hills of Karnataka.
  • The river Kaveri is called Dhakshin Ganga or Ganga of south.
  • The Kaveri bifurcates at Srirangam island with two channels, river Coleroon and Kaveri.
  • At last, it empties into the Bay of Bengal at Poompuhar.

West flowing rivers


  • This river rises in Amarkantak Plateau in Madhya Pradesh
  • It is the largest among the west flowing rivers of Peninsular India.
  • It drains into the Arabian sea through the Gulf of Cambay.


  • It is one of only the three rivers in Peninsular India that run from east to west – the others being the Narmada and the Mahi.
  • Tt outfalls into the Arabian Sea through the Gulf of Cambay.

3. Give a detailed account on the basin of the Ganga.

  • The river Ganga originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttar Khasi district of Uttarkhand state.
  • The length of the river Ganga is about 2,525 km.
  • Its major tributaries from the north are Gomti, Gandak, Kosi and Ghahra.
  • Its tributaries from south are Yamuna, Son and Sambal. The largest of its tributaries is the Yamuna.
  • The Ganga river system is the largest drainage system in India. It extends over an area of 8,61,404 sq km in India.
  • The Ganga plain is the most densely populated place in India and many towns are developed on the banks of this river.
  • Many religious centres like Haridwar, Mathura, Varanasi and Allahabad are located on the banks of river Ganga.
  • Ganga plain is the largest plain in India.
  • The general slop of the entire plain is towards east and southeast.
  • The river Ganga is known as the River Padma in Bangladesh.
  • The combined river of Ganga and Brahmaputra creates the World’s largest delta known as Sundarbans in Bangladesh before joining the Bay of Bengal.

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