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Indian Constitution

  • The Constitution is the fundamental law of a country which reflects the fundamental principles on which the government of that country is based.
  • It is the vehicle of a Nation’s progress.
  • More particularly, it is concerned with institutional fabric and the framework of the distribution of powers between the various organs of the government and between the Union and the States.
  • The concept of constitution was first originated in U.S.A.

The Need for a Constitution

  • All Democratic countries have a constitution that governs them.
  • A constitution puts down certain principles that form the basis of any kind of a state that we as citizens, desire to live in.
  • A constitution tells us the fundamental nature of our society.
  • A country is usually made up of different communities of people who have different beliefs; it will be helpful in fulfilling the beliefs of different segments of citizens.

Making of Indian Constitution

  • The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly set up under the Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946.
  • The Assembly consisted of 389 members representing:-

– Provinces (292),
– States (93),
– the Chief Commissioner’s provinces (3) and
– Baluchistan (1).

  • The Assembly held its first meeting on December 9, 1946.
  • Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha, the oldest member, was elected as the temporary President of the Assembly.
  • While the work was in progress, Dr. Sahchidananda Sinha died. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Assembly.
  • Similarly, both H.C. Mukherjee and V.T. Krishnamachari were elected as the Vice-Presidents of the Assembly.
  • The Assembly met for 11 sessions along with 166 days of meetings.
  • During the discussion, 2473 amendments were presented. Some of them were accepted.
  • The Assembly worked through various committees and the draft of the Constitution was prepared by the Drafting Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
  • He is recognised as the ‘Father of the Constitution of India’.
  • After the draft had been discussed by the people, the press, provincial assemblies and others, the Constitution was finally adopted on November 26, 1949, contained a Preamble, 22 parts, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules.
  • The drafted Constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950. This day is known as the Republic Day. It is being observed every year.

Salient features of Indian Constitution

  • It is the lengthiest of all the written constitutions of the world.
  • It has borrowed most of its provisions from the constitutions of various countries.
  • It is partly rigid and partly flexible.
  • It establishes a federal system of government.
  • It establishes the parliamentary system not only at the Centre but also in the states.
  • It makes India as a secular state.
  • It provides an independent judiciary.
  • It introduces Universal Adult Franchise and accords the right to vote to all citizens above 18 years of age without any discrimination.
  • It provides single citizenship.
  • It makes special provisions for minorities, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, etc…

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